The electrical conductivity of a semiconductor is between that of a conductor and an insulator the foundation of modern electronics are created by the help of a semiconductor the devices which use semiconductors are diodes, solar cells, computer,…
In a semiconductor the current can be carried by two ways it can be done either by the flow of electrons or by the flow of holes the main element which is used to create a semiconductor is silicon other materials are also used like germanium, gallium arsenide The conductivity of the semiconductor can be changed or modified by adding other elements called impurities and thus by adding other materials is referred to as doping

The semiconductor is not a good conductor nor a good insulator and thus it is called as a semiconductor


A diode is a semiconductor device a rectifier diode is a two lead semiconductor device that allows current in one direction the P-n junction diode is formed by the, n and P-type semiconductor materials rectifier diodes plays an important role in power supplies it is used to convert AC voltage to DC voltage

APPLICATIONS OF A SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE • It will convert AC to DC • Signals can be isolated from the supply • Signal size can be controlled • Mixing of the signals can be done • Detection of signals can be done • Voltage reference


A zener diode can act as a voltage regulator is a silicon semiconductor device which will operate under a reverse biased condition in DC circuit it is used as a voltage regulator as a voltage regulator zener diode function is to maintain a constant voltage


It behaves like a normal diode in the forward direction but when the reverse voltage is applied the voltage will remain constant A limit for the reverse voltage is seen the reverse voltage will increase until the diode breakdown voltage reaches and the point is called avalanche breakdown region and during this time maximum current will flow through the zener diode this diode is used in its reverse biased region the zener diode current will remain between the breakdown current and maximum current even in large change of current flow through the diode.


• Large semiconductor devices like solar photovoltaic panels it will directly convert light energy to electrical energy • Small in size • Low power consumption • Long life • Low operating voltages